A casino is a place where gambling games of chance are played for money or other prizes. Casinos generate billions of dollars in profits each year for the companies, investors and Native American tribes that own and operate them. The games are often played on a combination of tables and slot machines. Casinos also provide entertainment in the form of live shows and dining. In the United States, casinos are usually located in large resorts or on Indian reservations and are regulated by state law. In Europe, casinos are generally licensed and regulated by national governments. Many countries have laws prohibiting casinos or limiting their locations.
Casinos earn most of their profits by charging a percentage of each bet placed by gamblers to cover operating costs and maintain the house edge over the player. This percentage is known as the vig or rake and it can vary by game. A small advantage for the casino can add up to huge profits over time. In addition to the vig, casinos make money from players who spend long periods of time at slot machines and from high rollers who wager large amounts of money. These players are rewarded with comps such as free hotel rooms, meals and tickets to shows.
Modern casinos are designed to be visually appealing as well as safe and secure. They employ a combination of physical security forces and specialized surveillance departments to patrol the premises and respond to calls for assistance or reports of suspicious activity. Special catwalks above the casino floor allow surveillance personnel to look directly down, through one way glass, on activities at casino table games and on slot machines. Casinos also feature bright and sometimes gaudy flooring and wall coverings that are thought to stimulate the senses and distract gamblers from thinking about their losses. It is not uncommon to find no clocks in casino gambling rooms because it is believed that the visual stimuli will cause players to lose track of time.
The elegant spa town of Baden-Baden in Germany was a favorite destination for European royalty and aristocracy 150 years ago, and its casino still draws the wealthy from around the world. More recently, Macao has become a popular gaming destination and its newest landmark is the spectacular Hotel Lisboa, which looks like a giant birdcage and glows with a million LED lights.
As the popularity of casino gambling increased, organized crime figures got involved and brought a seamy image to the business. Mob money helped build the casinos of Las Vegas and Reno, but the mafia owners were not satisfied to simply provide funds for the operations; they wanted to control the business and even take sole or partial ownership in some cases. This tarnished the reputation of casino gambling and contributed to its illegal status in most states until the 1980s, when Nevada and several other states decriminalized it. From that point on, the number of casinos began to grow rapidly.